Extended Substitution Charts

Extended Ingredient Substitution Charts
Click the links below to access substitution charts for each type of ingredient:

Protein Substitutions – Containing meats, poultry, fish and seafood, eggs, dairy, protein powder, soy products and other vegetarian protein sources.

Carbohydrate Substitutions – Containing fruit, juices, vegetables, hummus, salsa, grains, breads and cereals.

Assorted Mixed Proteins/Carbs/Fats Substitutions – Containing ingredients which fall into more than one category, including beans, milk, yogurt, tempeh and soups.

Fat Substitutions – Containing oils, butters, nuts, seeds, mayonnaise, and salad dressing.

You may also be interested in the Freebies

You can also get a printer-friendly version of all of the charts together.

How to Substitute Ingredient Quantities

Each of the ingredient portions listed in the charts is equivalent to any one of the other ingredient portions of the same type (e.g. any protein ingredient portion is equal to any other protein ingredient portion). To substitute an ingredient for another ingredient, follow these instructions:

1. Take the ingredient quantity in the recipe that you want to replace.
2. Divide that quantity by the portion quantity for that ingredient found in this chart.
3. The result is the number of portions you need to fill with a new ingredient, so find the ingredient you want to use on the chart.
4. Take the result and multiply it by the portion for the ingredient you want to use. That’s the amount you need to use in the recipe.

This sounds complicated, but it’s really quite simple. An example should help you understand if you’re confused:

Suppose you have a recipe that calls for 5 oz of beef, but you want to use chicken instead. Step 1: the ingredient quantity you want to replace is 5. Step 2: the portion quantity for beef is 1 oz. 5 divided by 1 equals 5. Step 3: The ingredient you want to use is chicken breast, skinless. Step 4: The portion amount for chicken, skinless is 1 oz. 5 (our original result) times 1 equals 5. So you need to use 5 ounces of chicken in the recipe.

Of course, you could have figured that out just by looking at it, since 1 oz of chicken is equal to 1 oz of beef, so the amounts are instantly replaceable. But what happens when that isn’t the case? Here is an example that is a little tougher:

Suppose you have a recipe that calls for 4 1/2 cups of broccoli, but you want to use green peppers instead. Step 1: the ingredient quantity you want to replace is 4 1/2 cups. Step 2: the portion quantity for broccoli is 3 cups. 4 1/2 divided by 3 equals 1 1/2 (on a calculator, 4.5 / 3 = 1.5). Step 3: The ingredient you want to use is peppers (bell or cubanelle). Step 4: The portion amount for peppers on the chart is 2 whole peppers. 1 1/2 (our original result) times 2 equals 3. So you need to use 3 peppers in the recipe.

If you are still confused and you think a portion calculator on the website would help, leave a comment below and ask for it. If you’re having trouble and you think that would help, we would be happy to create one.

Protein Substitution Charts

Each of the ingredient portions listed here is equivalent to any other ingredient portion listed here.

Meat and Poultry
Beef, lean cuts 1 oz
Bison/buffalo Meat 1 oz
Chicken breast, deli-style 1 1/2 oz
Chicken breast, skinless 1 oz
Chicken drumstick 1 oz
Chicken, dark meat, skinless 1 oz
Corned beef 1 oz
Goose 1 oz
Ground beef (< 10% fat) 1 1/2 oz
Lamb, ground (< 10% fat) 1 1/2 oz
Lamb, lean 1 oz
Pheasant 1 oz
Pork chop 1 oz
Pork, lean 1 oz
Quail 1 oz
Squab 2 1/2 oz
Tripe 1 oz
Turkey bacon 3 slices
Turkey breast, deli-style 1 1/2 oz
Turkey breast, skinless 1 oz
Turkey, dark meat, skinless 1 oz
Turkey, ground 1 1/2 oz
Veal 1 oz
Venison 1 oz
Fish and Seafood
Anchovies 1 oz
Bass, freshwater 1 oz
Bass, sea 1 1/2 oz
Bluefish 1 1/2 oz
Calamari 1 1/2 oz
Catfish 1 1/2 oz
Clams 1 1/2 oz
Cod 1 1/2 oz
Crab 1 1/2 oz
Crayfish 2 oz
Haddock 1 1/2 oz
Halibut 1 1/2 oz
Lobster 1 oz
Mackerel 1 1/2 oz
Mussels 2 oz
Oysters 3 oz
Salmon steak 1 1/2 oz
Salmon, canned 1 oz
Salmon, smoked 1 oz
Sardines, canned (not in oil) 1 oz
Sashimi 1 oz
Scallops 1 1/2 oz
Shrimp 1 1/2 oz
Smelt 1 1/3 oz
Snapper 1 1/2 oz
Sole 1 1/2 oz
Swordfish 1 1/2 oz
Trout 1 oz
Tuna, canned in water 1 oz
Tuna, steak 1 oz
Whitefish 1 1/3 oz
Eggs and Dairy
Cheddar cheese, light/low-fat 1 oz
Cheese, low or non-fat 1 oz
Cottage cheese, low-fat 1/4 cups
Egg-whites 2
Feta cheese, light/low-fat 1 oz
Goat cheese, light/low-fat 1/4 cups
Hard cheeses, light/low-fat 1 oz
Mozzarella cheese, light/low-fat 1 oz
Neufchatel cheese, light/low-fat 1/4 cups
Ricotta cheese, skim 1/4 cups
Protein powder 7 grams
Soy burger 1/2 patty
Soy hot dog 1 links
Soy sausage 2 links
Soy, ground 1 oz
Textured Vegetable Protein 1 oz
Tofu 2 oz

Carbohydrate Substitution Chart

Each of the ingredient portions listed here is equivalent to any other ingredient portion listed here.

Fruit and Juices
Apples 1/2
Applesauce 1/3 cups
Apricots 3
Bananas 1/3
Blackberries 1/2 cups
Blueberries 1/2 cups
Boysenberries 1/2 cups
Breadfruit 1/8 cups
Cantaloupes 1/4
Cherries 8
Cranberries 3/4 cups
Currants 1 tbsp
Dates 2 pieces
Elderberries 1/2 cups
Figs 1
Fruit cocktail 1/3 cups
Fruit juice 1/3 cups
Gooseberries 1 cups
Grapefruits 1/2
Grapes 1/2 cups
Guava 1/2 cups
Honeydew melon 2/3 cups
Kiwis 1
Kumquat 3 pieces
Lemons 1
Limes 1
Mandarin orange, canned 1/3 cups
Mango 1/3 cups
Mulberries 1/2 cups
Nectarines 1/2
Oranges 1/2
Papaya 3/4 cups
Passion fruit 3 oz
Peaches 1
Peaches, canned 1/2 cups
Pears 1/2
Pineapple 1/2 cups
Plums 1
Pomegranate 4 oz
Prickly pear 7 oz
Prunes 2
Raisins 1 tbsp
Raspberries 1 cups
Strawberries 1 cups
Tangelos 1/2
Tangerines 1/2
Tomato juice 1 cups
Watermelon 3/4 cups
Alfalfa sprouts 10 cups
Artichoke hearts 1 cups
Artichokes 4
Asparagus 12 spears
Baked beans 1/4 cups
Bamboo shoots 4 cups
Bean sprouts 1 1/2 cups
Beans, black 1/4 cups
Beans, green or yellow 1 1/2 cups
Bok choy 3 cups
Broccoli 3 cups
Brussels sprouts 1 1/2 cups
Butternut squash 1/2 cups
Cabbage 3 cups
Carrots 1 cups
Cauliflower 4 cups
Celery 2 cups
Cherry tomatoes 2 cups
Chestnuts 1
Chickpeas 1/4 cups
Collard greens 2 cups
Corn on the cob 1/3 cobs
Corn, baby ears 4 ears
Corn, canned 1/4 cups
Cucumber 4 cups
Eggplant 1 1/2 cups
Endive 10 cups
Hummus 1/4 cups
Jalapeno peppers 2 cups
Kale 2 cups
Kidney beans 1/4 cups
Leeks 1 cups
Lettuce, iceberg 2 heads
Lettuce, romaine 10 cups
Mushrooms 2 cups
Okra 1 cups
Onions 1/2 cups
Parsnips 1/2 cups
Peas 1/4 cups
Peppers (bell or cubanelle) 2
Pickles 1
Potato 1/3 cups
Radishes 4 cups
Salsa 1/2 cups
Sauerkraut 1 cups
Scallions (green onions) 3 cups
Shallots 1 1/2 cups
Snow peas 1 1/2 cups
Spinach 3 1/2 cups
Squash 2 cups
Sweet potato 1/3 cups
Swiss chard 2 1/2 cups
Tomato sauce 1/2 cups
Tomatoes 2
Tomatoes, sun-dried 2
Turnip 1 1/2 cups
Turnip greens 4 cups
Water chestnuts 1/3 cups
Watercress 10 cups
Zucchini 2 cups
Grains, Breads and Cereals
Barley 1/2 tbsp
Bran cereal, all varieties 1/2 cups
Cereal, cold 1/2 cup
Corn tortillas 1
Crackers 4
Flour tortillas 1/2
Matzo 2 oz
Melba toast 1/2 oz
Oatmeal 1/3 cups
Pasta 1/4 cups
Pita 1/2 whole
Popcorn 2 cups
Pretzels 1/2 oz
Rice 1/3 cups
Rye bread 1/2 slice
Sourdough bread 1/2 slice
Whole grain bread 1/2 slice

Mixed Protein/Carb/Fats Substitution Chart

In contrast to the other substitution charts, not all of these portions are precisely equivalent to each other. Ingredients that belong in the mixed category contain either protein and carbohydrates, or protein and carbohydrates and fats. Ingredients in the Mixed Protein/Carbohydrate category can be interchanged with each other. Ingredients in the Mixed Protein/Carbohydrate/Fat can be interchanged with other. (Note that this also means that one portion of a Mixed Protein/Carbohydrate ingredient can be substituted for one each of a pure Protein and a pure Carbohydrate ingredient, but you probably won’t do much of that.)

Mixed Protein/Carbohydrate
Beans, mixed, various 1/4 cups
Lentils 1/4 cups
Milk, low-fat (1%) 1 cups
Soybeans 1/4 cups
Tempeh 1 1/2 oz
Yogurt, plain 1/2 cups
Mixed Protein/Carbohydrate/Fat
Beef and barley soup 1/2 cups
Beef and vegetable soup 2/3 cups
Chicken noodle soup 1/2 cups
Chicken vegetable soup 2/3 cups
Chili, canned 1/2 cups
Egg drop soup 1/2 cups
Lentil soup 1 cups
Pea soup 2/3 cups
Tomato-vegetable soup 2/3 cups
Vegetable soup 1 cups
Won ton soup 1/2 cups

Fats Substitution Chart

Each of the ingredient portions listed here is equivalent to any other ingredient portion listed here.

Almond butter 1/2 tsp
Almonds, slivered 1 tbsp
Almonds, whole 3
Avocado 1 tbsp
Butter 1/3 tsp
Cream (half & half) 1/2 tbsp
Cream cheese 1 tsp
Cream cheese, light 2 tsp
Guacamole 1 tbsp
Low fat salad dressings 1 tbsp
Macadamia-nuts 1
Mayonnaise 1 tsp
Olive or monounsaturated oil 1/3 tsp
Olives 3
Peanut butter, natural 1 tsp
Peanut oil 1/3 tsp
Peanuts 6
Pumpkin seeds 1/4 oz
Sunflower seeds 1/5 oz
Walnuts 3

The Freebie List

Freebies are ingredients that you can use that aren’t counted as portions, either because they have no nutrition value or because the amounts used are so small that they’re not worth counting. Use common sense when deciding whether or not something counts as a freebie. Here are some examples:

  • Salt and pepper
  • Herbs, spices and seasonings (not including sugar)
  • Vinegar
  • Soy sauce (low amounts)
  • Lemon/lime juice (low amounts – lemonade doesn’t count)
  • Hot sauce
  • Salsa (low amounts)
  • Bouillion cubes, soup mix, packaged spice mixes (watch the fat content on these)

Basically, things that are used for flavor instead of nutrition are typically freebies. Of course, the ultimate freebie is water. Go ahead, have as much as you like. 😉

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